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Ampere (A)
A unit of measurement for electron flow or current through an electrical circuit. (Amp = Volt / Ohm)
Ampere-Hour (AH)
A unit of measurement for electron flow or current through an electrical circuit for a certain period of time. (Ampere X Hour = Ampere-Hour).
Electrolyte
In a lead acid battery, it is a dilute solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water.
Hydrometer
A tool used to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte solution.
Ohm (Ω)
A unit of measurement for electrical resistance within an electrical circuit. ( Ohm = Volt / Ampere )
Ohm's Law
Expresses the relationship between voltage ( volts ), current ( amperes ), and resistance ( ohms ). (Ohms = Volts / Amperes).
Open Circuit Voltage
The voltage of a battery when there is no load attached ( not receiving or delivering energy). This measurement is best taken when the battery has been at rest for at least 6 hours.
Parallel Connection
A method of wiring batteries together by connecting the positive terminal of the first battery to the positive terminal of the second and the negative terminal of the first to the negative of the second. The capacity for batteries connected in parallel becomes additive, while the voltage remains the same as the individual battery.
Primary Battery
An energy storage device that can deliver energy but cannot be recharged.
Secondary Battery
An energy storage device that can deliver energy and can be recharged.
Separator
A divider made of porous material that is placed in between the positive and negative plates in a battery cell and allows current flow through it while preventing direct contact between the plates which would cause a short circuit.
Series Connection
A method of wiring like batteries together by connecting the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of an other. The voltage for batteries connected in series is additive, while the capacity remains the same as the individual battery.
Series Connection
A method of wiring like batteries together by connecting the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of an other. The voltage for batteries connected in series is additive, while the capacity remains the same as the individual battery.
Series-Parallel Connection
A method of wiring batteries together in a combination of series and parallel connections.
Specific Gravity
The density of a solution relative to the density of water.
Stratification
A condition where the concentration of acid is greater at the bottom of the battery than at the top. This condition is caused by undercharging, and if not corrected can cause premature failure of the battery. This condition can be prevented by periodic equalization.
Sulfating
The lead sulfate on both the positive and negative electrodes in a lead acid battery results during the discharge portion of the charge / discharge cycle and is a normal part of the battery process. If the battery is allowed to remain in a discharged state for a prolonged period of time, these sulfate crystals continue to grow. These larger crystals reduce the effective plate area ands are difficult to dissolve back into solution with normal charging. Thus, they reduce the overall capacity of the battery. This condition can be prevented effectively recharging the battery immediately following a discharge. This condition can also be prevented by periodically equalizing the battery.
Volt (V)
A unit of measurement for electrical potential within an electrical circuit. ( Volt = Ampere X Ohm )
Watt (W)
A unit of measurement for electrical power. ( Watts = Amperes X Volts )
Watt-Hour (WH)
A unit of measurement for electrical power for a certain period of time. ( Watts X Hours = Watt-Hour )